There are times when some of these same forgery indicators will be displayed in genuine signatures. Aged or infirmed writers will frequently display similar patterns. The mere presence of these indicators does not mean that the signature under scrutiny is non-genuine, but should contribute to the overall determination as to genuineness. Alternately, the signature devoid of these indications may not be assumed to be genuine. The signature of an elderly individual may, for instance, be expected to contain tremor and hesitation. If, however, the questioned signature appears to be written in a fluid manner, on a higher skill level than what is expected, the red warning flag should be waving. This occurrence may itself be indicative of non-genuineness. Often, a forger, because of an inherent high skill level in his writing, may produce a product that contains fewer “indications” of forgery than the genuine writer’s signature.
Non-Genuine Signatures – Handwritten
Non-genuine handwritten signatures may be generally categorized into one of four possibilities. While a determination of forgery may be possible, it is not always possible to assign the signature to one of these categories. It may, however, be prudent for the document examiner to do so when possible as the demonstration of non-genuineness may be much more effective.
Normal Hand Forgery
During the creation of this of non-genuine signature, the writer simply writes someone else’s name. There is no attempt made to duplicate or make the forgery look like a genuine signature. Any resemblance to the genuine signature is coincidental. Usually, the perpetrator of this signature does not have a model signature at hand and/or the skill level or forethought to attempt an emulation. If he does not attempt to impart disguise to the writing, the resultant product will display characteristics of the forger’s own handwriting. Armed with adequate standards of both the individual whose name is being used and exemplars of the suspect, the document examination may be definitive to the point that not only is the signature opined not genuine, but the forger is also identified. (Normal Hand Forgery).
The simulated signature, or “free hand forgery” as it is sometime known, is the usual bill of fare for the questioned document examiner. This forgery is constructed by using a genuine signature as a model. The forger generates an artistic reproduction of this model. Depending on his skill and amount of practice, the simulation may be quite good and bear remarkable pictorial similarity to the genuine signature.
Many simulations created with a model at hand will contain at least some of the general indicators of forgery, such as tremor, hesitation, pen lifts, blunt starts and stops, patching, and static pressure. They will have a slow “drawn” appearance. The practiced simulation is most often a higher quality creation in that the model signature has been memorized and some of the movements used to produce it have become semi-automatic. This simulation can be written with a more natural fluid manner. There can be tapered starts and stops, changes in pen pressure, and much less tremor in the moving line. Speed lends fluidity to writing. The more rapidly the pen moves while creating the genuine writing or signature, the more difficult the genuine writing is to imitate. Rapidly formed movements are scrutinized more closely than slower counterparts. A slowly written signature is not only easier for the forger to duplicate with some fashionable degree of pictorial similarity, the product will also display indications of non-genuineness than the forgery of a rapid and fluidly executed signature. The writer of a simulation must, of necessity, pay more attention to the form of a letter than the speed of his pen.
Both practiced and non-practiced simulations will still have notable shortcomings. The forger naturally puts his greatest effort into those parts of the name that he expects to fall under the greatest scrutiny. Although letter forms (especially the more prominent, large or beginning letters) may almost duplicate the genuine letters, proportions and height ratios will seldom be correct. Internal portions of the names (smaller, less prominent letters and pen movements) will usually display the greatest divergence from the correct form and movements found in the genuine signature.
While the simulated signature will readily fail the test for genuineness when examined by a competent forensic document examiner, the forger is rarely, if ever, associated with the forgery. During the creation of a simulated forgery, the author attempts to duplicate the writing style of another individual. By doing this, the forger leaves behind little, if any, of his own distinctive writing style. By doing an emulation of someone else’s signature, he also produces one of the best of all possible disguises of his own handwriting. Infrequently, some of the forger’s own individual characteristics may appear in the disputed writing. The limited quantity of these characteristics which appear on those occasions is such that identification of the author rarely occurs.
On some occasions, a “practice sheet” will be recovered by the investigator. Herein lies the best opportunity for the document examiner to link the suspect to the simulation. If there was an eye witness to the subject writing on the practice sheet, or if it was found in his close possession, it may be used as a standard. (This is, of course, dependant ultimately upon court acceptance over what will undoubtedly be rigorous objections). If there are a sufficient number of significant differences between the questioned signature and the genuine signatures, and these same differences appear in the practiced simulations, there may be a basis to associate the forgery to the forger within some degree of probability. An absolute identification, nonetheless, even under these circumstances is infrequent.
Closely related to this form of identification process is that of determining the number of different forgers from a quantity of simulations. On occasion there will be two or more forgers attempting to reproduce the same signature. It may be possible to group or associate simulations of the same name by the combinations of defects within the forgeries. By associating and grouping the similar defects (when compared to the genuine signature) it may be possible to conclude and illustrate that there are indeed, two or more different forgers. (Simulation).
Traced forgeries are generally created by one of three methods: “transmitted light,” “carbon intermediate,” or “pressure indented image.” While tracings may not normally present much of a challenge to the document examiner trying to determine genuineness, the ability to identify the perpetrator is totally precluded. Tracing another’s signature, or for that matter another’s handwriting, is the paramount form of disguise.
Total agreement between the model and the questioned signature dictate that the questioned signature was a product of tracing. No two signatures or handwritings, even from the same person, are ever totally duplicated. Just as certainly, total agreement between two, three or more questioned signatures is adequate demonstrative proof of tracing. Of course, the document examiner faced with total agreement between a number of signatures must take care that the model signature (genuine signature) is not one of the signatures in question.
The model signature, if recovered, may of itself contain evidence of its use in producing a tracing. A second ink line or indentation impressed into the genuine signature by stylus or pen or other pointed implement is usually indicative of a pressure or carbon tracing. Again, caution must be exercised if a second ink line is present in a genuine signature. The immediate assumption by the uninitiated examiner that this signature is itself a carbon-type tracing can be a source of error.
On occasion, signatures that were executed while the writing paper was on a rough surface (matte finish) contain the illusion of tremor created by simulation or tracing. Close examination will reveal that this tremor is much too abundant and evenly spaced. There will be little, if any, variation in the tremor and the peaks and valleys of the rough surface will be embossed into the written line. (Tracing).
Transmitted Light Tracing
The transmitted light tracing is the simplest of the tracings to produce and the one most often encountered. The paper that is to receive the spurious signature is placed over a document bearing the genuine signature. These documents are then aligned so as to put the genuine signature directly under the selected location for the forgery. These two papers are then held up to a window or other light source, and the transmitted signature image is traced on the receiving document.
The indicators of a transmitted light tracing are similar to that of a simulation and the two are difficult to tell apart (unless the model for the tracing is located). Height ratios and proportions in the transmitted light tracing are generally right on the money, however. These two features are frequently incorrect in the simulation.
At times, a carbon-medium tracing is the method of choice, especially if the document to receive the tracing is too heavy a weight, such as cardboard, to allow for a good light transmitted image.
Normally, the area to receive the signature is covered with a piece of carbon paper which in turn has the model signature placed upon it and aligned with the area that is to receive the image. The model signature is then traced over with a pen or other pointed implement. This procedure will impart a carbon image of the signature on the receiving document. This image is then overwritten with a pen. Often this pen will be a broad-tipped instrument such as a felt-tip or fountain pen. This wider ink line serves to hide the carbon image better than a ballpoint pen.
Some “paperhangers” employ a light carbon tracing, difficult to see even at a short distance, as an endorsement on stolen checks. These checks are then cashed at the financial institution or check-cashing service where the real endorsee has an account. The passer then “endorses” the check, writing over the traced lines in front of the cashier or teller, thereby lending credence to the drama. Again this is most often accomplished with a broad-tipped pen.
Quite frequently, the “ghost” line of the carbon impression is not in register with the inked overwriting and a double line is readily apparent. Often microscopic observation and/or infrared viewing or imaging techniques will reveal the carbon centerline. Occasionally, the questioned document examiner is rewarded with the recovery of the used carbon paper. Transparencies of the model signature (if recovered), the impression in the carbon paper and the tracing, when aligned on an overhead projector make for an effective court demonstration.
Now and then, the examiner will come across a derivation of this style of tracing that does not use carbon paper. Using a soft-lead pencil, the reverse side of the paper containing the model signature can be shaded with the pencil’s graphite point. This soft graphite will then be transferred to the receiving document in much the same manner as if carbon paper was utilized.
The mere existence of a ghost line may not guarantee that the signature in question is a tracing, however. On rare occasions another force may be at work. Although rarely seen today, some older style photocopying machines rely on a pre-sensitized paper coated with zinc oxide. If this paper bears an original ballpoint signature, there may be a ghost image, or what appears to be a guideline consistently on either the right side or less frequently, on the left side or the original ink. This ghost image (also referred to as sister lines), will be precisely the same distance from the corresponding original ink line throughout the writing. It may not be continuous, but appear only in conjunction with specific letters. This illusion of tracing is generated by the abrasion of the pen’s metal ballpoint socket by the harder material of the paper’s zinc oxide coating. This will occur in pens that have fairly broad ball housings, rather than steeply angled sockets. The material of the socket must be made of a sufficiently soft metal to allow for the abrasion to occur. Right-handed writers would tend to have the ghost image to the right of the letter formations, while left-handed individuals will likely produce the ghost image on the left side.
Because of the almost non-existent use of this sensitized paper in modern day machine copying processes, most document examiners will likely never encounter this problem. However, on occasion a similar phenomenon can be found when NCR (National Cash Register – no carbon required) paper is employed.
Pressure Indented Tracing
Similar to a carbon paper tracing, the indented line tracing is produced in essentially the same manner, but does not employ any intermediate reproduction medium. Heavier pressure is used when tracing over the model signature. This pressure leaves an indented “signature” on the receiving document. This is then covered over with a broad-tipped pen, although ballpoint is found on occasion. Almost invariably, the writer misses portions of the indented line. This error may be easily observed using glancing (oblique) light. Other general indications of non-genuineness are similar to those found in simulated forgeries. In both the carbon-medium and indented line tracing, the forger is faced with an paradoxical situation. If he overwrites the model image with enough speed to make the forgery fluid and natural appearing, he will undoubtedly miss the model line in several areas that will then be readily discernable. If, on the other hand, he pays particular attention to covering the model image, the resultant line quality deteriorates into the slow-moving, hesitation-filled byproduct of forgery.
On rare occasions, an innovative form of spurious signature may be encountered that can best be equated with a tracing, but in actuality differs from the conventional concepts of tracing because of its method of production.
Most traditional ballpoint pen inks employ an ethylene glycol medium as the base ingredient to carry dyes, extenders, plasticizers, and other ink components. A signature made by employing a pen using this ink may be “transferred” to another document by using ordinary waxed paper or freezer paper. By placing this form of medium over a genuine signature and rubbing the top of the paper vigorously, the wax that is in conjunction with the signature will melt and subsequently absorb some of the ethylene glycol-based ink line. This paper now containing a mirror image of the genuine signature is placed over another document that is to receive the forgery. The waxed paper is again rubbed briskly, melting the wax and ink composite. This process will result in a forgery that does not conform to, nor contain, the normal observable conditions that are associated with simulated or traced signatures. This is because, in essence, this signature was created by the signature holder’s hand rather than the forger’s. Indications of this process will be in the form of wax left behind that covers and surrounds the signature line. The signature itself will have a discernibly faded appearance and the edge of the ink line when viewed under low magnification will have a mottled look rather than sharp appearance.
The signature that does not satisfy the requirements for genuineness must necessarily be non-genuine. To use an old cliché, anything in between is similar to being slightly pregnant. It matters not how the conception (or in this case, deception) took place.
Occasionally, an individual will sign a document with the specific intention of denying the signature at a later time. Some people may think of this as a safeguard when they are confronted with the necessity of signing something they are not sure about, but demands immediate attention. Others start out with larceny in their hearts.
These signatures, commonly referred to as auto-forgeries, will usually be found on promissory notes, contracts, Constitutional Rights forms, confessions, closed-account checks, etc.
Initial observations of an auto-forgery often appear similar to what might be expected in a simulated forgery. Further inspection will almost always reveal remarkable internal similarities to the genuine signature. Why does this happen? The auto-forger, not knowing the perceptual abilities of someone that might examine the signature, incorporates gross changes to the larger, initial, or prominent letters. His usual response when confronted with a signature that he is denying is “I never make that letter(s) that way.” Indeed he doesn’t, but neither would a real forger. (Auto-forgery).
This attention by the writer to changing prominent features usually does not carry over to the small and seemingly less significant letter formations that are found within the interior of the disputed signature. Under close scrutiny, the details present in these less prominent portions of the signature will bear undeniable similarities to that in the genuine signatures. Once the writer has accomplished what in substance is a disguise in the letter formations of highest visibility, he will fall back into his normal habitual handwriting or signature style until such time as he perceives the need for another letter formation alteration.
In essence then, while the forger creating a simulation does his best to make the prominent focal points of the signature look like the corresponding features in a genuine signature, the auto-forger goes out of his way to make them appear different. Similarly, the forger misses, or does not pay as much attention to the interior subtleties of a signature, while the auto-forger, because he is a creature of habit, produces these smaller intricate details correctly. Piece by piece, the simulation and auto-forgery are almost diametrical opposites. When an auto-forgery may be at hand, the questioned document examiner must remember the old adage that if something “looks that bad, it may be that good.”
With an auto-forgery, the legal authenticity of the signature may be quite different than that of forensic authenticity. The auto-forgery may at once be legally authentic (especially if witnessed), forensically non-genuine and ethically (if not judicially) contemptuous.
Non-Genuine Signatures – Mechanical
Mechanical signatures most often are those produced without the direct aid of the human hand. Signatures produced by auto-pens or writing machines, rubber stamps, and offset printing are examples of mechanical signatures. These imitation signatures differ from other non-genuine signatures in that they may be legally genuine when their use has been authorized by the signature holder. These are prime examples of forensically non-genuine but legally authentic signatures.
However, when mechanical signatures are used in non-authorized capacities, they are quite simply forgeries. Rubber stamp signatures used by a secretary to sign company checks for the boss look the same as those produced by a burglar who stole the rubber stamp.
“Xerox” Forgery (generic for the process, not the company)
Please refer to the section on Photocopy Forgery
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Forgery is the process of creating, adapting, or imitating objects or documents. The most common forgeries include money, works of art, documents, diplomas, and identification. Forgeries often accompany other fraud such as application, insurance, or check fraud, financial identity takeover, and so forth.
- Blind Forgeries. These forged signatures have little to no resemblance to the customer's actual signature because the forger does not have access to the signature. ...
- Trace-Over Forgery. ...
- Skilled forgery.
Have three documents, two with signatures of same person, which are genuine and match. Third document alleged forged signature of person who signed on document one and two mentioned earlier.
The forensic process of signature verification is to look beyond the obvious. Minute features of the questioned signature (the one that is alleged to have been forged) are examined. Then, it is compared to a collection of signatures that are known to be genuine.
- Forgery by Altering Documents. One of the most common types of criminal forgery is altering an otherwise valid document. ...
- Forgery by Creating False Documents. ...
- Forgery by Faking an Identity. ...
- Forgery by Using a Forged Item. ...
- Degrees of Forgery. ...
- Federal vs.
Among the most common types of forged documents are contracts, vital records and other legal certificates, checks, and identification cards.
Documents of legal significance that are commonly forged include: Identification documents like drivers licenses or passports. Checks. Wills.
Forgery and Aggravated Forgery –Falsifying or altering a document. Check Forgery – falsifying or altering a check. Counterfeit Currency – Creating counterfeit money or another form of financial obligation.
Forgery cases in California are indeed difficult for a prosecutor to prove in court. The intent to defraud, thereby harming the victim in legal or monetary ways, has to be proven to the court.
Section 1 Forgery Act 1981 states: A person is guilty of forgery if he makes a false instrument, with the intention that he or another shall use it to induce somebody to accept it as genuine, and by reason of so accepting it to do or not to do some act to his own or any other person's prejudice.”
India Code: Section Details. Whoever commits forgery, intending that the 1 [document or electronic record forged] shall be used for the purpose of cheating, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.
- Simple. A simple digital signature is a digital signature in its simplest form because it is not protected by any encryption method. ...
- Basic. Digital basic signatures don't have much difference compared to simple digital signatures. ...
- Advanced & Qualified.
(d) Signatures. The original of each document must be signed by the participant or its authorized representative, or by an attorney having authority with respect to it. The document must state the capacity of the person signing; his or her address, phone number, and e-mail address; and the date of signature.
- Symbols and marks. Symbols or marks have been used for a long time as signatures. ...
- Written or wet signature. The most popular type of signature until this day is the written signature – also known as a wet signature. ...
- Electronic signature. ...
- Digital signatures. ...
- Click wrap signatures.
Under the NSW Crimes Act 1900, signature forgery is a fraud offence and the penalties can be severe, including the possibility of a ten year jail sentence.
The most common types of forged documents include: Fraudulent passports. False driver's licenses. Forged account numbers and signatures on a check.
Victims can file criminal complaint for forgery in addition to civil suit, says Karnataka HC. BENGALURU: An individual who is affected by forgery or cheating can initiate a criminal complaint for the offence in addition to proceedings in the civil court, the high court has said.
Many simulations created with a model at hand will contain at least some of the general indicators of forgery, such as tremor, hesitation, pen lifts, blunt starts and stops, patching, and static pressure. They will have a slow “drawn” appearance.
- learning-oriented tutorials.
- goal-oriented how-to guides.
- understanding-oriented discussions.
- information-oriented reference material.
- WORK DOCUMENTS. Tax forms, vacation time, proof of educational leave, etc. ...
- VEHICLE DOCUMENTS. ...
- ACADEMIC DOCUMENTS. ...
- MEDICAL DOCUMENTS. ...
- HOUSING INFORMATION. ...
- NATIONAL IDENTITY DOCUMENTS.
- Portable document format (PDF) A PDF file is a common file type in many work environments. ...
- Word document (DOC and DOCX) ...
- Hypertext markup language (HTML and HTM) ...
- Microsoft excel spreadsheet file (XLS and XLSX) ...
- Text file (TXT)
- Falsification of Legislative Documents. ...
- Falsification of Wireless, Cable, Telegraph, and Telephone Messages. ...
- Falsification of Private, Public or Commercial Documents.
Most difficult of all to detect is the forgery done in the style of a particular artist or age.
- Turn it upside down. The best way to compare a signature is to turn it upside down. ...
- Beware stamped signatures. Fake autographs are often mechanically reproduced. ...
- Look closely at the ink. ...
- Look for "robotic" tell-tale signs.
Forgery is when another person's signature, mark, or other writing is adapted so as to deceive or defraud. Counterfeiting occurs when that same writing which has been adapted is then used for fraudulent purposes without that person's knowledge or consent.
What is Signature Forgery? Signature forgery is the act of falsely replicating another person's name or signature on documents, which is against the law and considered a crime that comes with numerous consequences for someone or their business.
- Arguing Against Forgery. If you didn't commit forgery, you could focus your defense on that fact. ...
- Arguing Against Intent to Defraud. Another popular defense is to argue that you did not intend to defraud anyone. ...
- Insignificant Document. ...
- Highlight Prosecution Errors.
Forensic document and handwriting experts examine physical evidence to prove alteration and/or simulation. Simulation is the more accurate term that forensic handwriting experts use to describe the process of imitating or copying another person's signature or handwriting.
A signature written by the forger in his own style of handwriting without attempting to copy to form of the genuine signature. 37. A freehand imitation and regarded as the most skillful type of forgery.
In its simplest terms, forgery is faking someone else's signature or handwriting or falsifying a document without permission then passing it off as genuine with the intent to defraud.
(1)Every person who utters any forged document, seal, or die shall be guilty of an offence of the like degree (whether felony or misdemeanour) and on conviction thereof shall be liable to the same punishment as if he himself had forged the document, seal, or die.
Uttering and forgery were originally common law offences, both misdemeanours. Forgery was the creation of a forged document, with the intent to defraud; whereas uttering was merely use – the passing – of a forged document, that someone else had made, with the intent to defraud.
Forgery is considered a felony in all fifty states and is punishable by a range of penalties including jail or prison time, significant fines, probation, and restitution (compensating the victim for money or goods stolen as a result of the forgery).
Signatures are the most common form of evidence that needs to be analyzed. Specifically, the court usually questions the authorship and authenticity of a signature or written letter. Other handwritten evidence includes wills, contracts, and deeds.
Regardless of what the signature looks like—whether it's written neatly, scribbled, or typed—it's proof that conditions have been considered and accepted. As long as a signature is representative of who a person is and their intent, any kind of mark is considered legal.
In computer security, a signature is a specific pattern that allows cybersecurity technologies to recognize malicious threats, such as a byte sequence in network traffic or known malicious instruction sequences used by families of malware.
Are signed contracts legally binding? Yes, signed contracts are legally binding. They are legally binding when they meet the elements of an enforceable and valid agreement. These elements include an offer , acceptance , consideration , mutual obligation , and competency .
Don't include too much information in your email signature
Therefore, keep the information you share in your signature to a minimum, and put the most important information first. Contact information should be included but only one number and one address.
As long as the signature represents who that person is and his or her intent, any of the marks are considered valid and legally binding. Signatures are usually recorded in pen, but this is not always the case.
your name written by yourself, always in the same way, usually to show that something has been written or agreed by you. Compare. autograph noun. Examples.
A signature (/ˈsɪɡnətʃər/; from Latin: signare, "to sign") is a handwritten (and often stylized) depiction of someone's name, nickname, or even a simple "X" or other mark that a person writes on documents as a proof of identity and intent. The writer of a signature is a signatory or signer.
The symbol consists of three dots placed in an upright triangle and is read therefore. While it is not generally used in formal writing, it is used in mathematics and shorthand. ∴ Therefore sign. In Unicode.
: the act of falsely making, altering, or imitating (as a document or signature) with intent to defraud. also : the crime of committing such an act. : something that is forged.
/ˈfɔr·dʒə·ri, ˈfoʊr-/ an illegal copy of a document, painting, etc., or the crime of making such copies: [ C ] These twenty-dollar bills are forgeries.
An individual commits a crime of forgery if the signature in the negotiable instrument is forged without the consent of the authorized person. Many people have fallen victim to fraudulent transactions despite precautionary measures.
Forgery – Forgery means making a false document that intent on the part of is the maker to defraud.
Victims can file criminal complaint for forgery in addition to civil suit, says Karnataka HC. BENGALURU: An individual who is affected by forgery or cheating can initiate a criminal complaint for the offence in addition to proceedings in the civil court, the high court has said.
Section 465 of the Indian Penal Code describes Punishment for forgery. According to this section, Whoever commits forgery shall be punished with imprisonment of jail term either description for a span which may extend to two years or with the penalty, or with both. Under IPC it is a non-cognizable offence.
The Attorney-General points out that the penalty for the forgery or falsification of checks as provided by article 301 of the Penal Code, as amended by Act No. 2712, is prision correccional in its maximum degree, which is from four years, two months and one day to six years.
Normal Hand Forgery
There is no attempt made to duplicate or make the forgery look like a genuine signature. Any resemblance to the genuine signature is coincidental. Usually, the perpetrator of this signature does not have a model signature at hand and/or the skill level or forethought to attempt an emulation.
A textbook definition of forgery is the making of a false document with the intent that it should be used or acted upon as if it's genuine. Therefore, the falsification of document includes altering a genuine document in any material part.
Forgery is a complex process to prove and frequently involves the services of a fraud or forensic accountant. Forensic document and handwriting experts examine physical evidence to prove alteration and/or simulation.