Computers and Nursing Practice
Science has bestowed health care delivery system with excellent technological innovations. One such innovation is the computerization of the entire health care delivery system. Computerization has contributed enormously towards the reduction of medical errors and the problems associated with such errors (Gan et.al, 2005). Computerization of health care delivery includes computerization of the medical records popularly known as the Electronic Medical Record System (EMR), Electronic Prescriptions, Personal Digital Assistants, Computer Automated Cancer Detection and Computerized Theatre Management Applications. The implementation of voice recognition technology in mobile healthcare settings is yet another recent innovation (Chang et.al, 2008).
A study to determine the attitudes of Registered Nurses towards the use of computers in the hospital setting as a predictor of their future behavior based on the theory of Planned Behavior with nine different indices namely, behavioural intention towards computer use, general attitudes toward computer use, nursing attitudes toward computer use, threat involved in computer use, challenge involved in computer use, organizational climate, departmental climate, attraction to technological innovations/innovativeness and self-efficacy has shown that the threat and challenge that are involved in computer use are mediating variables to the understanding of the process of predicting attitudes and intentions of nurses in using computers (Shoham and Gonen, 2008). A study to assess the community hospital nurses' use of electronic health records and views of the impact of such records on job performance and patient outcomes has shown that nurses prefer electronic records to paper charts and are comfortable with technology (Kossman andScheidenhelm, 2008).
Instruments like Nurses' Computer Attitudes Inventory (NCATT), Revised NCATT, Dambrodt's scale for Computer Attitudes measure nurses' attitudes on computerization (Rohan and Peter, 1996). Success of computerization in nursing practice lies in utilization of features, functions, input and output modalities that nurse would find most useful (Mihailidis et.al, 2006).
Electronic Medical Records Systems
An Electronic Medical Record (EMR) is a medical record in digital format. Electronic Medical Record keeping facilitates access of patient data by nurses at any given location, building automated checks for drug and allergy interactions, clinical notes and laboratory reports. The term Electronic Medical Record can be expanded to include systems which keep track of other relevant medical information. Although an EMR system has the potential for invasion of a patient's medical privacy, EMRs can serve a great purpose when monitored effectively (Mandl et.al, 2001). Five levels of Electronic Health Care Record (EHCR) keeping has been classified .1.The Automated Medical Record, which is a paper-based record with some computer-generated documents. 2. The Computerized Medical Record (CMR), which makes the documents of level 1 electronically available. 3. The Electronic Medical Record (EMR) which restructures and optimizes the documents of the previous levels ensuring inter-operability of all documentation systems. 4.The Electronic Patient Record (EPR) which is a patient-centered record with information from multiple institutions and 5.The Electronic Health Record (EHR) that adds general health-related information to the EPR that is not necessarily related to a disease (Walker, 2005). The development of standards for EMR interoperability is vital because of the fact that without interoperable EMRs, practicing nurses, physicians, pharmacies and health care institutions cannot share patient information, which is necessary for timely patient-centered care. There are many standards relating to specific operation of EMRs in the USA and across the globe. These include ASTM International Continuity Of Care Record in which patient health summary is based upon XML; ANS1 X12, which is a set of protocols used for transmitting any data including billing information; CEN, which is the European Standard for EMR; DICOM, a popular standard in Radiology record keeping and HL7, which is commonly used in clinical document architecture applications (Laerum et.al, 2003). There are many software programs specially developed for Electronic Record Keeping with integrated appointment scheduling billing, prescription writer, transcription module, document management and workflow management (Ringold et.al, 2000).
Nurse Practioners have prescriptive authority in the United States (Galewitz, 1999) and prescription error is a problem in current nurse practice. Communication has been cited as the single biggest block in such prescription errors leading to wrong reading by the pharmacist. Errors seem to be more in the dose of the medicines prescribed. Electronic prescription systems have been designed as a total remedy to this problem (Laerum et.al, 2003).
Personal Digital Assistants
Personal Digital Assistants popularly known as PDA are literally handheld computers that help patient management. Using a PDA, a nurse can access a patient's laboratory reports and refer the latest information on relevant therapies, tests and treatments. The PDA can also be used for billing and updating patient visits. The PDA can also provide map and directions to the patient's homes. Using a PDA, a nurse can instantaneously transfer prescriptions to the patient's pharmacy, answer patient e-mail, refer to medical textbooks, drug databases, journals and updates (Laerum et.al. 2003). The utility of personal digital assistant resources in healthcare practice of course presents new challenges due to changing device capabilities and software availability (Kuiper, 2008).
Computer Automated Cancer Detection
A ThinPrep Processor Model 2000 has been recently approved by the FDA for the automatic preparation of PAP slides making it easier for screening atypical cells in female patients suspected with Cancer of the cervix (http://www.fda.gov). The ThinPrep System has been found to be especially effective for detecting low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions known as SILs and severe lesions. The ThinPrep System provides for better detection of Cancer cells (Heuther et.al, 2004). PAPNET is another innovation that uses neural net computer technology, where, the computer provides guidelines for identifying abnormal cells from a series of digital images of PAP smears fed priori. AutoPap 300 QC is another Pap test re-screening system that uses image interproduction and pattern recognition techniques for identifying abnormal cells (Heuther et.al, 2004).
Computerized Theatre Management Application
Theatre Management Applications automatically record patient information like demographic and financial data, visit history with dates, procedures, performing and attending providers, care records with clinical highlights and patient status, surgical data including proposed, type, actual, severity and risks stored for reference in the event of future surgical procedures (Hillestad, 2005). The most important aspect of such applications is that they facilitate the management of patient supplies with associated refill lists. These systems help to monitor and track the use of implant and surgical items utilized during operative procedures. The applications allow the theatre nurses to create lists which give full information on the necessary equipments and surgical instruments required in the operating theatre for a surgery specific to a surgeon or specialty.
Computerization has contributed enormously towards the reduction of medical errors and the problems associated with such errors by providing timely access to client information and by assisting nurses with client monitoring, decision making and bedside documentation. But, the real challenge lies in utilization of features, functions, input and output modalities that nurse would find most useful.
- AlexMihailidis, Peng LauraKrones andJenniferBoger Masc (2006). Assistive Computing Devices: A Pilot Study to Explore Nurses' Preferences and Needs. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing. 24 (6); 328-336.
- Gan D. et al (2005). Medical Groups' Adoption of Electronic Health Records and Information Systems. Health Affairs. 24 (5): 1323-1333.
- Hallvard Laerum, Tom H. Karlsen and Arild Faxvaag (2003). Effects Of Scanning And Eliminating Paper Based Medical Records On Hospital Physician's Clinical Work Practice. .Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 10: 588-595.
- http://www.fda.gov/FDAC/features/896_pap.html (Publication No. (FDA) 97-4264).
- Jayasuriya Rohan and Caputi Peter(2006). Computer Attitude and Computer Anxiety in Nursing. Computers, Informatics, Nursing. 14 (6);340.
- P. Galewitz (1999). Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants Prescribing More Drugs. Associated Press. 17 August.
- PolunChang, Yu-HsiangSheng, Yiing-YiingSang and WeiWang(2008). Developing a Wireless Speech and Touch-Based Intelligent Comprehensive Triage Support System.Computers, Informatics, Nursing. 26 (1); 31-38.
- Richard Hillestad, James Bigelow, Anthony Bower, Federico Girosi, Robin Meili, Richard Scoville and Roger Taylor (2005)."Can Electronic Medical Record Systems Transform Health Care? Potential Health Benefits, Savings and Costs", Health Affairs. 24(5): 1103-1117.
- Ringold, JP Santell, and PJ Schneider (2000). ASHP National Survey of Pharmacy Practice In Acute Care Settings: Dispensing and Administration-1999. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. 57 (19): 1759-75.
- RuthanneKuiper (2008). Use of Personal Digital Assistants to Support Clinical Reasoning in Undergraduate Baccalaureate Nursing Students. Computers, Informatics, Nursing. 26 (2);90-98.
- SnunithShoham and AyalaGonen (2008). Intentions of Hospital Nurses to Work With Computers Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Computers, Informatics, Nursing. 26 (2); 106-116.
- SusanP.Kossman and SandraL.Scheidenhelm (2008). Nurses' Perceptions of the Impact of Electronic Health Records on Work and Patient Outcomes. Computers, Informatics, Nursing. 26 (2);69-77.
- Walker J (2005). Electronic Medical Records and Health Care Transformation. Health Affairs. 24 (5):1118-1120.
Copyright 2008- American Society of Registered Nurses (ASRN.ORG)-All Rights Reserved
Where can I find nursing research articles? ›
The best way to find nursing research articles is by using the database CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature). The CINAHL Plus with Full Text database is also available from the Health Sciences Library list of databases.Why does the RN use computers for evidence based practice? ›
Computers enable nurses to quickly access important information about your health or illness and your treatment plan from your electronic health record. Nurses can access information such as your laboratory test and x-ray results and health reports from other health-care team members to give you the best care possible.What are the most common databases that nurses and other healthcare professionals use to identify published research and evidence based guidelines? ›
The National Library of Medicine (NLM) supports researchers and clinicians through its multiple health information resources including PubMed, MEDLINE, and PubMed Central (PMC). PubMed serves as the search engine to access the MEDLINE database, PMC, and books, chapters, and other documents that are indexed by the NLM.What is a nursing journal article? ›
Nursing journals primarily focus on research and evidence-based information, offering insight to nurses and those looking to become a nurse. They often present, review, communicate and offer critiques about nursing issues, which may support both academic progress and careers of nurses.How many types of nurses are there? ›
|Nursing Programs||Training Duration||Registration|
|Auxiliary Nurse & Midwife||2 years||R.ANM|
|General Nursing & Midwifery||3 and 1/2 years 3 years from 2015-2016||R.N & R.M|
|B. Sc (Basic)||4 years||R.N & R.M|
|B.Sc (Post Basic)||Regular: 2 yrs Distance: 3 yrs||Additional Qualification|
- CINAHL Complete.
- Cochrane Library. Download the user guide. ...
- Scopus. This abstract and citation database covers thousands of scholarly journals, books, and conference proceedings.
Through the use of EMRs, nurses and other medical professionals can quickly access critical patient information and reduce or eliminate the need for paperwork. EMRs give nurses current data that notifies them as a patient's condition changes and whether a patient has allergies to certain medications.What are the benefits of using computers in healthcare? ›
- Patient wait time is reduced. ...
- Patients suffer from fewer mistakes. ...
- Patients can be at lower risk for hospital-acquired infections. ...
- Patients have a better healthcare experience. ...
- Patients may be able to pay lower costs.
Nursing documentation Nursing assessments, clients care plan, medication administration records, nursing notes and discharge plans are some of the forms of nursing administration that are computerized.What is the best database for healthcare? ›
PubMed. PubMed is the number one source to turn to. It is hosted at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and provides bibliographic information including abstracts and links to the full text publisher websites for more than 28 million articles.
What database do nurses use? ›
The CINAHL database (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health) covers nursing, allied health, biomedical and consumer health journals, publications of the American Nursing Association, and the National League for Nursing.Where can I find EBP articles? ›
- PubMed for Nurses: Provides free access to MEDLINE, the NLM database of indexed citations and abstracts.
- Welch Medical Library: For Johns Hopkins Health System employees.
- CINAHL Complete: A research tool for nursing and allied health professionals.
- Quality of Life Research. This link opens in a new window. ...
- Birth: Issues in Prenatal Care. ...
- Cancer Nursing Practice. ...
- Journal of Advanced Nursing. ...
- Western Journal of Nursing Research. ...
- Journal of Nursing Scholarship. ...
- Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. ...
- Research in Nursing & Health.
Click on the title of the journal you're looking for, and it will bring you to the publication detail for that journal. If you scroll down, you can see the subjects that the journal covers. If Nursing is in there, it's safe to say it's a Nursing journal.How many nursing journals are there? ›
There are now close to 250 nursing journals worldwide!What is the highest nurse called? ›
The highest level of nursing education is the doctoral level. Positions that require doctoral nursing degrees include certain types of advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs), as well as leadership positions such as chief nursing officer or director of nursing.What type of nurses are most in demand? ›
Registered nurse (RN)
BSN-prepared nurses are the most sought-after RNs in the job market and can advance to leadership and management roles more quickly than the ASN nurse.
- Family Nurse – $113,000.
- Urgent Care Nurse – $113,000.
- Oncology Nurse – $113,000.
- Orthopedic Nurse – $115,000.
- Cardiac Nurse – $116,000.
- Emergency Room Nurse – $116,000.
- Neonatal Nurse – $127,000.
- Nurse Anesthetist – $189,000.
CINAHL is an important electronic database for nurses. It covers references to hundreds of nursing and allied health journals, as well as to books, book chapters, and dissertations.Is CINAHL database free? ›
You will never be charged for an article in the library databases. Even if you find an article that we don't have full-text access to through the databases, the librarians can always order it for you - free of charge - through interlibrary loan.
What is the main difference between MEDLINE and CINAHL? ›
CINAHL Plus with Full Text provides full text coverage for more than 760 nursing & allied health journals, and abstracts for over 1600. Medline with Full Text contains references from over 4,800 journals covering medical, nursing and veterinary sciences. Please note that some records give abstracts only.What are some common uses and applications of computers in nursing and health care? ›
- Medical and Patient Data. When examining patients, doctors and nurses can take notes and prescribe treatments at the point of care. ...
- Medical Imaging and Equipment. ...
- Patient Monitoring. ...
- Research. ...
- Communication and Telemedicine. ...
- Inventory. ...
- Computers Made for Healthcare.
Today's technology also enables nurses to access essential nursing tools and key medical references online, reducing diagnosis time and errors. Computer technology also enables nurses to create records that doctors use to update patient treatment orders more efficiently, when the patient's condition requires it.What impact does technology have on nursing in the areas of health records? ›
In the nursing field, technology allows RNs to improve efficiency and communicate more effectively. While some nurses have oppositions about new technology, saying it takes personal interaction away from the bedside, a survey of 600 nurses show that 82 percent believe that technology positively impacts patient care.What are the effects of computers and technology on healthcare? ›
Health information technology presents numerous opportunities for improving and transforming healthcare which includes; reducing human errors, improving clinical outcomes, facilitating care coordination, improving practice efficiencies, and tracking data over time.What are the benefits of technology in nursing? ›
Improves nurse-patient relationship
Practicing technology in the medical field elevates the patients' experience and facilitates the nurse's involvement in handling these patients. Artificial Intelligence improves overall patient outcome and their experience under nurse care.
Computers are very vital in nursing education as they are able to store and make information available by processing it quickly. It helps to facilitate audio-visual representation of information that is taught and as such making the learning process to be both interesting and interactive.What technology do registered nurses use? ›
Patients are given wearable devices, such as a heart monitor. The medical devices use sensors to record vital signs and other information and then communicate it to computer systems at the hospital or physician's office. Nurses can then monitor information from the medical devices while the patients are at home.What computer based communication are used in nursing? ›
Article findings. From the thirty-one articles within this review the use of four main types of computer mediated communication interventions were noted: Email (n = 8), Videoconferencing (n = 7), Computer mediated social support groups (n = 9) and multifaceted interventions (n = 7).What are the two most common types of databases used in healthcare? ›
The two most common types of databases found in healthcare... relational and object-oriented databases.
What software is used in healthcare? ›
Electronic Health Records (EHR) is probably the most popular and the most crucial type of healthcare software. EHR systems store patients' data: medical and family history, laboratory and other test results, prescribed medications history, and more.What is the best source of clinical data? ›
The key source of clinical data resides in a patient's medical record, which collects nearly all care delivery and treatment decision details, regardless of treatment setting.Why are databases important for nurses? ›
The Up-To-Date database can have a significant role in the field of nursing, because this database provides nurses with the updated, new, evidence-based, practical, comprehensive, and quick information that are useful in decision-making, providing service to patients and avoiding the wasting of time in caring the ...Why is MEDLINE a good database for nurses? ›
MEDLINE is a great resource for medical research because it is authoritative, peer-reviewed, and complete (as much as possible, anyway). MEDLINE is authoritative because it permits you to see who exactly conducted the research, who wrote the results, and even where the research was conducted.Why do nurses use CINAHL? ›
The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) is generally thought to be a good source to search when conducting a review of qualitative evidence.Where can I find EBP articles for nursing? ›
The best place to start your search or Evidence-Based Practice articles for Nursing is in the CINAHL Complete database. CINAHL stands for Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and is the premier database for finding Nursing literature.What are some examples of evidence based practice in nursing? ›
Through evidence-based practice, nurses have improved the care they deliver to patients. Key examples of evidence-based practice in nursing include: Giving oxygen to patients with COPD: Drawing on evidence to understand how to properly give oxygen to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Where can nurses find evidence-based practice? ›
- Cochrane Library. Key source of information in evidence-based medicine (EBM).
- JBI EBP Database (Ovid) ...
- TRIP (Turning Research into Practice) ...
- UpToDate. ...
- eTG Complete (Therapeutic Guidelines)
|1||Journal of the American Medical Directors Association||2.023 Q1|
|2||Clinical and Translational Immunology||1.771 Q1|
|3||Journal of Pain and Symptom Management||1.527 Q1|
|4||International Journal of Nursing Studies||1.470 Q1|
What is the impact factor of the American Journal of Nursing? ›How do you check if an article is evidence-based? ›
Evidence-based journal articles will include a review of current research related to the article's subject matter. If an article includes a literature review or a discussion of current research as a foundation for the resulting information presented in the article, it likely qualifies as evidence-based.How do you tell if a study is evidence-based? ›
How to tell if you are looking at an evidence-based research articleHow do I get a nursing article published? ›
- Recognize the Opportunity. ...
- Choose a Compelling Topic. ...
- Beware the Common Pitfalls. ...
- Research Potential Publishers. ...
- Study the Writers' Guidelines. ...
- Be Patient. ...
- Prepare Yourself for the Process. ...
- Try Again.
The best way to find nursing research articles is by using the database CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature). The CINAHL Plus with Full Text database is also available from the Health Sciences Library list of databases.What do nursing journals provide? ›
Nursing journals primarily focus on research and evidence-based information, offering insight to nurses and those looking to become a nurse. They often present, review, communicate and offer critiques about nursing issues, which may support both academic progress and careers of nurses.What is the good impact factor? ›
In most fields, the impact factor of 10 or greater is considered an excellent score while 3 is flagged as good and the average score is less than 1.What are some examples of nursing research? ›
- Adverse childhood experiences (ACE's)
- Bruise study (light detection of bruises in various skin tones)
- Cancer screening, prevention and education.
- Cardiac care and congenital heart disease.
- Chronic disease self-management—Including diabetes self-management.
BMC Nursing is an open access, peer-reviewed journal that considers articles on all aspects of nursing research, training, education and practice.Is Journal of Clinical Nursing open access? ›
Open Access Licensing and Copyright
Journal of Clinical Nursing articles are published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The CC-BY license permits commercial and non-commercial re-use of an open access article, as long as the author is properly attributed.
What is the difference between nursing research and nursing clinical research? ›
Whereas the CRN role involves working on projects related to treatments and patient care, nursing research is based on the acquisition of new knowledge related to the progression of nursing.What are the new trends in nursing? ›
The current trends in nursing and care are multifactorial including: the increase in the aging population, a transition to informatics, a nursing shortage, and an overarching emphasis on specific frameworks for the guiding of nursing practice, including integration of evidence based practice.Is nursing research hard? ›
Nursing research papers appear to be most challenging. Yes, doing the actual research and writing while taking care of structuring, formatting, and citations is hard.What is nursing Short answer? ›
Nursing encompasses autonomous and collaborative care of individuals of all ages, families, groups and communities, sick or well and in all settings. Nursing includes the promotion of health, prevention of illness, and the care of ill, disabled and dying people.Is BMC Nursing a good journal? ›
The overall rank of BMC Nursing is 7780. According to SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), this journal is ranked 0.631. SCImago Journal Rank is an indicator, which measures the scientific influence of journals.What is BCM nursing? ›
Before the start of your Business Continuity Management (BCM) project for your Nursing Home, one of the initial key steps is to have a good "Understanding of Your Organisation: Nursing Home".What does BMC stand for in nursing? ›
The American Journal of Nursing is the oldest and most honored broad-based nursing journal in the world. Peer-reviewed and evidence-based, it is considered the profession's premier journal.How do you publish a nursing journal in a research paper? ›
- Recognize the Opportunity. ...
- Choose a Compelling Topic. ...
- Beware the Common Pitfalls. ...
- Research Potential Publishers. ...
- Study the Writers' Guidelines. ...
- Be Patient. ...
- Prepare Yourself for the Process. ...
- Try Again.
What are the 6 roles of nurses in research? ›
- Clinical Research Nurses: In their own words.
- Building Local Research.
- Change Research Cultures.
- Supporting Surgical Trials.
- Developing Nurses.
- Informed Consent.
- Research Management.
The speciﬁc purposes of nursing research include identification, description, exploration, explanation, prediction, and control.What are the roles for advanced practice nurse in nursing research? ›
These roles include coordinating, consolidating, conducting, consulting, and committing to nursing research. Because of their specialized clinical experience and graduate-level academic education, APNs are needed to participate in these five roles.